This image is a simplified representation of the human urinary system, specifically focusing on the bladder and its connections. The bladder, labeled as “Vesica urinaria,” appears to be cut open from the front to allow a view inside its cavity. Two tubes, labeled as “Ureter,” are shown entering the bladder from the top. These are the conduits through which urine flows from the kidneys to the bladder. Within one of the ureters, there’s an illustration of a “Ureter Stone,” indicating a common urological condition known as ureterolithiasis where stones form in the ureter, potentially obstructing urine flow.

Inside the bladder, there’s a “Bladder stone,” a condition medically termed cystolithiasis, where mineral deposits form into stones within the bladder itself. The openings where the ureters connect to the bladder are labeled as “Opening of ureter” or “Ostium ureteris.” These openings are typically where the ureters implant into the bladder wall, allowing urine to enter the bladder.

At the bottom of the bladder, we see the “Urethra,” which is the tube that leads urine out of the body from the bladder. The anatomy suggests this is a depiction of a female urinary system given the relatively short length of the urethra shown; in males, the urethra is longer and passes through the prostate and penis.

In summary, the image represents the lower part of the urinary tract highlighting common sites where urinary stones can form. These stones can cause discomfort, urinary tract infections, or blockages that might require medical intervention. The anatomical relationships depicted are crucial for understanding how urine is transported out of the body and what happens when this process is interrupted by conditions such as stones.

Study Outline

Urinary System Study Guide Outline

I. Introduction to the Urinary System

A. Function of the Urinary System

1. Waste removal
2. Regulation of blood volume and composition
3. Control of electrolyte and metabolite balance

II. Anatomy of the Urinary System

A. Kidneys (not shown in image)

1. Urine production

B. Ureters

1. Structure: Narrow tubes connecting kidneys to bladder

2. Function: Transport urine from kidneys to bladder

C. Bladder (Vesica urinaria)

1. Structure: Muscular sac

2. Function: Storage of urine before excretion

D. Urethra

1. Structure: Tube leading from the bladder to the outside

2. Function: Passage of urine out of the body

E. Ostium ureteris (Opening of ureter)

1. Location: Point where ureters enter the bladder

2. Role: Permit the flow of urine into the bladder

III. Common Urinary Conditions

A. Ureterolithiasis (Ureter Stone)

1. Description: Stones formed in the ureter

2. Symptoms: Pain, possible obstruction of urine flow

B. Cystolithiasis (Bladder Stone)

1. Description: Stones formed within the bladder

2. Symptoms: Discomfort, frequent urination, potential infection

IV. Urinary Pathway

A. Path of Urine

1. Formation in the kidneys

2. Down the ureters

3. Storage in the bladder

4. Expulsion through the urethra

V. Clinical Considerations

A. Symptoms of Stone Formation

1. Pain

2. Hematuria (blood in urine)

3. Urinary urgency

B. Diagnosis and Treatment

1. Imaging techniques (e.g., ultrasound, CT scan)

2. Medical management (hydration, pain control)

3. Surgical intervention (if necessary)

VI. Summary of Key Points

A. Importance of fluid balance in the body

B. Relationship between structure and function in the urinary system

C. Impact of urinary stones on the urinary tract and overall health

The image presents a detailed anatomical illustration of the male urinary bladder and its associated structures. On the left, we see a sagittal section, a vertical cut that divides the body into right and left parts, showing the internal configuration of the bladder and the organs around it. The bladder is depicted as a hollow, muscular, and distensible organ, located in the pelvis. The ureters, which are tubes that transport urine from the kidneys, are shown entering the bladder at the ureteral openings. These openings are situated at the back of the bladder, leading towards the trigone, a triangular area of the bladder floor that is clinically significant because it is a common site for the accumulation of bladder stones and infections.

Beneath the bladder, the internal urethral sphincter is indicated. This is a ring-like muscle that involuntarily controls the flow of urine from the bladder into the urethra, which is the tube leading out of the body. In males, the urethra passes through the prostate gland, which is represented just below the bladder and is involved in both urinary and reproductive functions.

The prostate is an important gland in the male reproductive system, producing fluid that, along with sperm cells from the testes and fluid from other glands, forms semen. The external urethral sphincter, located further down the urethra, is a voluntary muscle that allows control over the discharge of urine from the bladder.

The right side of the image provides a detailed frontal section of the bladder itself. It highlights the interior of the bladder, showing the bladder peritoneum, which is the serous membrane lining the bladder’s outer surface, and the trigone region from an internal perspective.

This illustration provides a comparison between two states of the urinary bladder. On the left, the bladder is depicted in a filled state, with urine indicated by the shaded area. White arrows show the pressure exerted by the urine as the bladder expands. This expansion signals the need to urinate due to the activation of stretch receptors in the bladder wall.

Both illustrations show the urethra, the tube that allows urine to exit the body. In the filled state, the internal urethral sphincter is closed, as it is controlled involuntarily to retain urine within the bladder. The external urethral sphincter, which is under voluntary control, also appears closed, maintaining urinary continence.

The text beneath the left illustration notes that the sphincter muscles close the urethra, and as urine volume increases, there is an increase in the urgency to urinate. This is because the bladder sphincters, particularly the internal urethral sphincter, and the detrusor muscle (the bladder wall muscle, not labeled here) work together to hold urine until it’s voluntarily released.

On the right, the illustration shows the bladder in a state of release or voiding. The yellow shaded area is smaller, indicating that urine has been expelled. Red arrows depict the contraction of the bladder muscles which push the urine out. In this state, the sphincter muscles, particularly the external urethral sphincter, are relaxed to allow urine to flow through the urethra.

The accompanying text explains that the bladder muscles tense when the bladder is full, but during urination, these muscles contract to expel urine while the sphincter muscles relax.

This comparative illustration is used to educate about the physiology of urination, demonstrating how the urinary bladder functions in storing and expelling urine, as well as the roles played by various sphincters and muscles in these processes. Understanding these mechanisms is fundamental in fields like urology, nursing, and human physiology.

The illustration here displays three different states of the prostate gland in relation to the bladder and urethra, providing a comparative view to demonstrate the effects of prostate changes on urinary function.

The first image on the left shows a normal prostate gland. It is properly sized without any signs of swelling or enlargement. The prostate encircles the urethra just below the bladder, and in a healthy state, it does not impede the flow of urine through the urethra.

The middle image depicts an inflamed prostate, often referred to as prostatitis. In this condition, the prostate gland is swollen and appears reddened, which can be indicative of inflammation or infection. This swelling can constrict the urethra, potentially causing difficulty in urination and discomfort.

The third image on the right illustrates an enlarged prostate gland, known as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). This is a common condition as men age and is characterized by an increase in the size of the prostate gland. The enlargement is noticeable as the gland bulges more prominently into the space surrounding the urethra. This can lead to a restriction of the urinary flow, causing symptoms like frequent urination, urgency, and a weak urine stream.

This set of images is a valuable educational tool to explain the impact of prostate conditions on the urinary system. Understanding these conditions is essential in fields like urology, where the focus is on diagnosing and treating urinary tract issues, particularly those affecting men.

BladderA muscular sac in the pelvis, just above and behind the pubic bone, that collects and stores urine from the kidneys before disposal by urination.
UreterA pair of tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder.
UrethraThe tube that carries urine from the bladder out of the body. In males, it also serves as a conduit for semen during ejaculation.
Prostate GlandA gland in the male reproductive system that surrounds the neck of the bladder and urethra. It produces prostatic fluid, which is a component of semen.
Internal Urethral SphincterAn involuntary sphincter that controls the flow of urine from the bladder into the urethra.
External Urethral SphincterA voluntary sphincter that allows control over the discharge of urine from the bladder.
TrigoneA triangular area at the base of the bladder where the ureters enter and the urethra exits; sensitive to stretching and plays a role in signaling the need to urinate.
Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)An enlargement of the prostate gland that can cause urinary dysfunction.
ProstatitisInflammation of the prostate gland, often due to infection, that can cause urinary and pelvic pain.
Detrusor MuscleThe smooth muscle layer of the bladder wall that contracts to expel urine.
PeritoneumA membrane that lines the abdominal cavity and covers most of the abdominal organs, including the superior aspect of the bladder.
Seminal VesiclesGlands that produce fluid that partly composes semen.
EpididymisA long, coiled tube that stores sperm and transports it from the testes.
TestesThe male reproductive organs that produce sperm and testosterone.
Vas DeferensThe duct that conveys sperm from the testicle to the urethra.
Renal PelvisThe central part of the kidney where urine collects before being passed to the ureter.
KidneysA pair of bean-shaped organs that filter waste products from the blood and produce urine.
SuprapubicPertaining to the region above the pubic bone where the bladder is located.
MicturitionThe process of urination or voiding the bladder.
Ureterovesical JunctionThe point where the ureter enters the bladder, which is designed to prevent backflow of urine.

Practice Quiz