Upper Arm and Shoulder Pathologies


  1. Fractures: These are common injuries that can affect the humerus, the bone of the upper arm. Fractures can occur as a result of trauma, such as a fall or a direct blow.
  2. Biceps Tendonitis: This is inflammation or irritation of the biceps tendon, which connects the biceps muscle to the bones in the shoulder and elbow. It can cause pain in the front of the upper arm.
  3. Triceps Tendonitis: This is inflammation or irritation of the triceps tendon, which connects the triceps muscle to the elbow bone. It can cause pain in the back of the upper arm.
  4. Rotator Cuff Tears: These are tears in the group of muscles and tendons that surround the shoulder joint, which can cause pain and weakness in the upper arm.
  5. Brachial Plexus Injury: This is an injury to the network of nerves that sends signals from your spinal cord to your shoulder, arm, and hand. It can cause weakness, numbness, or even paralysis of the arm.
  6. SLAP Tear: This is a tear of the labrum, the ring of cartilage that surrounds the socket of the shoulder joint.
  7. AC Joint Injury (Shoulder Separation): This is an injury to the joint at the top of the shoulder, where the acromion of the shoulder blade meets the clavicle.
  8. Shoulder Dislocation & Instability: This is a common injury that occurs when the ball of the shoulder joint is forced out of its socket. It can cause severe pain and instability in the upper arm. Chronic dislocation can lead to Instability.
  9. Shoulder Impingement Syndrome: This occurs when the tendons of the rotator cuff muscles become impinged as they pass through the narrow bony space in the shoulder. It can cause pain and limited movement of the upper arm.
  10. Frozen Shoulder (Adhesive Capsulitis): This is a condition characterized by stiffness and pain in your shoulder joint, which can make it difficult to move the arm.
  11. Shoulder Bursitis: This is inflammation of the bursa, a small, fluid-filled sac that cushions the shoulder joint.
  12. Shoulder Arthritis: This includes osteoarthritis (wear-and-tear arthritis), rheumatoid arthritis (an autoimmune disease), and post-traumatic arthritis (which occurs after an injury).