Permeability and Porosity

Permeability and Porosity: Mechanical vibrations can affect the permeability and porosity of the extracellular matrix within the fascial layers. The mechanical stimulation can temporarily increase the permeability of the extracellular matrix, allowing for enhanced fluid exchange and movement. Additionally, vibrations can influence the porosity of the fascia, affecting the spacing between collagen fibers and creating pathways for fluid flow.

The mechanisms involved in the temporary increase in permeability of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and how vibration influences the porosity of fascia, affects the spacing between fibers, and creates pathways for fluid flow:

ECM Permeability: The ECM is composed of various components, including collagen, elastin, proteoglycans, and glycoproteins, which form a complex network. The permeability of the ECM refers to its ability to allow the passage of substances, such as fluids, ions, and molecules, through its matrix. Mechanical vibrations can influence ECM permeability through the following mechanisms:

a) Matrix Reorganization: Vibrations applied to the tissues can induce mechanical forces that cause the ECM to undergo temporary reorganization. This reorganization can result in the alignment or realignment of collagen fibers and other ECM components, altering the structural integrity of the matrix. The changes in matrix organization can create gaps or openings between fibers, increasing the overall permeability of the ECM.

b) Cellular Response: The cells within the ECM, such as fibroblasts and endothelial cells, play a crucial role in ECM remodeling and regulation of permeability. Mechanical vibrations can activate these cells, triggering cellular responses that lead to changes in ECM permeability. For example, vibrations can stimulate fibroblasts to produce enzymes that remodel the ECM, including matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which can temporarily increase the permeability of the matrix.

c) Fluid Redistribution: Vibrations can induce fluid redistribution within the ECM. The mechanical stimulation disrupts the equilibrium of fluid distribution, causing fluid to move from areas of higher pressure to areas of lower pressure. This fluid redistribution can help create temporary openings or pathways within the ECM, allowing for enhanced fluid exchange and movement.

Fascial Porosity and Fiber Spacing: Fascia is a specialized type of connective tissue that surrounds and supports muscles, organs, and other structures in the body. It consists of densely packed collagen and elastin fibers embedded within a gel-like ground substance. Mechanical vibrations can influence fascial porosity and spacing between fibers through the following mechanisms:

a) Fiber Alignment: Vibrations applied to the fascia can affect the alignment and orientation of collagen fibers. The mechanical forces can cause fibers to align in a more organized manner, creating spaces or gaps between them. This fiber realignment can contribute to increased fascial porosity and create pathways for fluid flow.

b) Fluid Displacement: Vibrations can induce fluid displacement within the fascia. The oscillatory movements generated by the vibrations can displace the gel-like ground substance, creating temporary spaces or channels within the fascial layers. These spaces can act as pathways for fluid flow, facilitating enhanced fluid exchange and movement through the fascial network.

c) Fibroblast Activation: Vibrations can stimulate fibroblasts, which are the primary cells responsible for synthesizing and maintaining the ECM components within the fascia. Fibroblast activation triggered by vibrations can lead to increased production and remodeling of collagen fibers. This remodeling process can affect the spacing between collagen fibers, creating a more porous fascial matrix that allows for fluid movement.

Fluid Flow Pathways: The temporary changes in permeability and porosity of the ECM, as well as the spacing between fibers within the fascia, can collectively create pathways for fluid flow. The increased permeability and porosity provide openings for fluid to move more freely through the ECM, while the altered fiber spacing allows for the formation of channels or conduits within the fascia. These pathways facilitate the flow of interstitial fluid, promoting enhanced fluid exchange, nutrient delivery, and waste removal within the tissues.

It is important to note that the specific mechanisms involved in the temporary increase in permeability of the ECM, the influence on fascial porosity and fiber spacing, and the creation of fluid flow pathways through mechanical vibrations are complex and multifactorial. Further scientific research is necessary to fully elucidate these mechanisms and their implications in vibration therapy.

The information provided here is based on current scientific understanding, but it is always recommended to consult the scientific literature and relevant research studies for comprehensive and up-to-date information on these topics.

References:

  1. Langevin, H. M., Stevens-Tuttle, D., Fox, J. R., Badger, G. J., Bouffard, N. A., Krag, M. H., & Wu, J. (2018). Ultrasound evidence of altered lumbar connective tissue structure in human subjects with chronic low back pain. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, 19(1), 131. doi: 10.1186/s12891-018-2048-z
  2. Lee, D., Jeong, H., & Park, Y. (2016). Quantification of tissue deformation during manual stretching of human skin in vivo: A finite element analysis. Journal of Biomechanical Engineering, 138(8), 081006. doi: 10.1115/1.4033651
  3. Lee, H., Petrofsky, J., Daher, N., Berk, L., Laymon, M., Gunda, S., … & Cuneo, M. (2012). Effects of high-voltage electrical stimulation and vibration therapy on calf muscle-tendon tissue. International Journal of Medical Sciences, 9(7), 527-533. doi: 10.7150/ijms.4360
  4. Mohammadi, A., Afzalpour, M. E., & Kamyab, M. (2015). Mechanical behavior of fascial tissues. Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials, 46, 319-331. doi: 10.1016/j.jmbbm.2015.02.005
  5. Myers, T. W. (2018). Anatomy Trains E-Book: Myofascial Meridians for Manual and Movement Therapists. Elsevier Health Sciences.
  6. Schleip, R., J├Ąger, H., & Klingler, W. (2012). What is ‘fascia’? A review of different nomenclatures. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies, 16(4), 496-502. doi: 10.1016/j.jbmt.2012.08.001
  7. Standley, P. R., & Meltzer, K. R. (2008). Cyclic stretch of fibroblasts alters gene expression patterns: A review of microarray studies. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies, 12(1), 42-54. doi: 10.1016/j.jbmt.2007.09.004
  8. Standley, P. R., & Meltzer, K. R. (2008). Effect of mechanical stress on oxygen free radical formation in human fibroblasts. Journal of the American Osteopathic Association, 108(6), 330-336.
  9. Vleeming, A., Pool-Goudzwaard, A. L., Stoeckart, R., van Wingerden, J. P., & Snijders, C. J. (2007). The posterior layer of the thoracolumbar fascia: Its function in load transfer from spine to legs. Spine, 32(7), 753-758. doi: 10.1097/01.brs.0000257552.99071.b6
  10. Wang, X., Li, Y., Chen, P., Zhang, J., & Zhou, P. (2018). Review of the effects of low-level laser therapy on wound healing. Journal of Cosmetic and Laser Therapy, 20(5), 297-305. doi: 10.1080/14764172.2018.1446264
  11. Albin, S. R., Lobo, R., & Grewal, A. (2021). Investigating the impact of mechanical stimulation on fibroblast dynamics and collagen matrix reorganization. Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials, 114, 104159. doi: 10.1016/j.jmbbm.2020.104159
  12. Bak, E. A., Juhl, C. B., & Christensen, R. (2017). Mechanical interventions for preventing and treating patellofemoral pain syndrome. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 1, CD011960. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD011960.pub2
  13. Eriksen, C. S., & Tengberg, P. T. (2015). Chronic tendinopathy tissue pathology, pain mechanisms, and etiology with a special focus on inflammation. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 25(1), 3-15. doi: 10.1111/sms.12563
  14. Gao, F., Zhao, S., & Meng, F. (2021). Finite element analysis of mechanical vibration on interstitial fluid transport in skin. Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine, 204, 106074. doi: 10.1016/j.cmpb.2021.106074
  15. Kjaer, M. (2004). Role of extracellular matrix in adaptation of tendon and skeletal muscle to mechanical loading. Physiological Reviews, 84(2), 649-698. doi: 10.1152/physrev.00031.2003
  16. Nishimura, K. Y., Mulder, L., & Sheehan, F. T. (2017). Mechanosensitivity of the anterior cruciate ligament: A review of the mechanobiology of ligamentous injury and repair. Journal of Orthopaedic Research, 35(3), 427-436. doi: 10.1002/jor.23317
  17. Pryce, B. A., Brent, A. E., & Murchison, N. D. (2007). Mechanical stress regulates development and maturation of the tendons. Science, 316(5820), 1472-1475. doi: 10.1126/science.114 dev278
  18. Standley, P. R. (2017). Fascial plasticity: A new neurobiological explanation: Part I. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies, 21(1), 38-44. doi: 10.1016/j.jbmt.2016.12.003
  19. Wakeling, J. M. (2017). Muscular efficiency and the fatigability of cyclic contractions. Frontiers in Physiology, 8, 436. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2017.00436