|A neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the accumulation of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in the brain, leading to cognitive decline and memory loss.
|Star-shaped glial cells in the central nervous system that maintain the blood-brain barrier, provide nutrients to nervous tissue, and play a role in repair and scarring processes following CNS injury.
|A long, slender projection of a neuron that conducts electrical impulses away from the cell body.
|Cell Body (Soma)
|The part of a neuron that contains the nucleus and genetic material; it is responsible for maintaining the life of the cell and its metabolic activities.
|Branch-like structures of neurons that receive messages from other nerve cells and transmit these messages towards the cell body.
|Glial cells lining the ventricles of the brain and the central canal of the spinal cord, involved in the production and circulation of cerebrospinal fluid.
|Free Nerve Endings
|The most common type of nerve ending, which responds to pain, temperature, and mechanical stimuli like touch and pressure.
|The immune cells of the central nervous system, acting similarly to macrophages by scavenging the CNS for plaques, damaged neurons, and infectious agents.
|A fatty layer that insulates axons of some neurons, facilitating the rapid conduction of electrical signals. Produced by oligodendrocytes in the CNS and Schwann cells in the PNS.
|Abnormally aggregated tau proteins inside neurons, associated with Alzheimer’s disease, contributing to the disruption of the neuronal transport system and compromising the structural integrity of the neuron.
|The fundamental unit of the brain and nervous system, responsible for carrying messages throughout the body as electrical impulses.
|Nodes of Ranvier
|Gaps in the myelin sheath along the axon that allow electrical impulses to jump from node to node, facilitating rapid signal transmission.
|Glial cells in the central nervous system that produce the myelin sheath insulating neuronal axons. Each oligodendrocyte can extend its processes to myelinate multiple axons.
|Glial cells in the peripheral nervous system that wrap around axons to form the myelin sheath, aiding in the rapid transmission of electrical signals. Each Schwann cell myelinates a single axon.
|The junction through which neurons signal to each other and to non-neuronal cells such as muscles or glands. Ensures directional transmission of nerve impulses.