1805 Neuron Anatomy Study Resources

Alzheimer’s DiseaseA neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the accumulation of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in the brain, leading to cognitive decline and memory loss.
AstrocytesStar-shaped glial cells in the central nervous system that maintain the blood-brain barrier, provide nutrients to nervous tissue, and play a role in repair and scarring processes following CNS injury.
AxonA long, slender projection of a neuron that conducts electrical impulses away from the cell body.
Cell Body (Soma)The part of a neuron that contains the nucleus and genetic material; it is responsible for maintaining the life of the cell and its metabolic activities.
DendritesBranch-like structures of neurons that receive messages from other nerve cells and transmit these messages towards the cell body.
Ependymal CellsGlial cells lining the ventricles of the brain and the central canal of the spinal cord, involved in the production and circulation of cerebrospinal fluid.
Free Nerve EndingsThe most common type of nerve ending, which responds to pain, temperature, and mechanical stimuli like touch and pressure.
MicrogliaThe immune cells of the central nervous system, acting similarly to macrophages by scavenging the CNS for plaques, damaged neurons, and infectious agents.
Myelin SheathA fatty layer that insulates axons of some neurons, facilitating the rapid conduction of electrical signals. Produced by oligodendrocytes in the CNS and Schwann cells in the PNS.
Neurofibrillary TanglesAbnormally aggregated tau proteins inside neurons, associated with Alzheimer’s disease, contributing to the disruption of the neuronal transport system and compromising the structural integrity of the neuron.
NeuronThe fundamental unit of the brain and nervous system, responsible for carrying messages throughout the body as electrical impulses.
Nodes of RanvierGaps in the myelin sheath along the axon that allow electrical impulses to jump from node to node, facilitating rapid signal transmission.
OligodendrocytesGlial cells in the central nervous system that produce the myelin sheath insulating neuronal axons. Each oligodendrocyte can extend its processes to myelinate multiple axons.
Schwann CellsGlial cells in the peripheral nervous system that wrap around axons to form the myelin sheath, aiding in the rapid transmission of electrical signals. Each Schwann cell myelinates a single axon.
SynapseThe junction through which neurons signal to each other and to non-neuronal cells such as muscles or glands. Ensures directional transmission of nerve impulses.