1504 Pancreas Anatomy Study Resources

Abdominal AortaThe main artery that carries oxygenated blood from the heart to the lower body.
Acute PancreatitisAn inflammatory process of the pancreas often caused by gallstones, alcohol use, among other causes, characterized by sudden and severe abdominal pain.
Adrenal GlandAn endocrine gland located above each kidney, consisting of the cortex and medulla, producing various hormones including adrenaline, noradrenaline, and cortisol.
AdrenalineA hormone and neurotransmitter produced by the adrenal medulla involved in the body’s fight-or-flight response.
AldosteroneA mineralocorticoid hormone produced by the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex, regulating sodium and potassium balance in the body.
Amino AcidsOrganic compounds that combine to form proteins, serving as the building blocks for protein synthesis.
AndrogenSex hormones produced in the zona reticularis of the adrenal cortex, stimulating hair growth and oil production in the skin.
BileA digestive fluid produced by the liver and stored in the gallbladder, involved in the digestion and absorption of fats in the small intestine.
Beta CellA type of cell within the Islets of Langerhans in the pancreas responsible for producing insulin.
Blood GlucoseThe main sugar found in the blood and the body’s primary source of energy.
CapsuleThe outer protective layer of the adrenal gland, maintaining the gland's structure and protecting it from direct injury.
Common Bile DuctA tube carrying bile from the gallbladder and liver to the duodenum.
CortexThe outer region of the adrenal gland, divided into three zones (zona glomerulosa, zona fasciculata, zona reticularis) each producing different hormones.
CortisolA glucocorticoid hormone produced by the zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex, involved in stress response, metabolism, and immune response.
DuodenumThe first section of the small intestine where the pancreatic duct and the common bile duct release their contents.
EstrogensFemale sex hormones produced by the zona reticularis of the adrenal cortex, influencing the female reproductive system and bone health.
GallbladderAn organ that stores and concentrates bile produced by the liver.
GlucagonA hormone produced by alpha cells in the Islets of Langerhans in the pancreas, raising blood glucose levels.
Glucose Transporter 2 (GLUT2)A protein that facilitates the transport of glucose into cells, particularly significant in pancreatic beta cells for insulin production.
Glucose UptakeThe process by which cells absorb glucose from the bloodstream, facilitated by insulin.
GluconeogenesisThe production of glucose from non-carbohydrate sources, stimulated by cortisol in muscles.
InsulinA hormone produced by beta cells in the pancreas, regulating blood sugar levels by facilitating glucose uptake into cells.
Insulin ResistanceA condition where the body's cells do not respond effectively to insulin, characteristic of Type 2 Diabetes.
Inferior Vena CavaA major vein carrying deoxygenated blood from the lower body to the heart.
Islets of LangerhansClusters of cells within the pancreas, containing beta cells that produce insulin and other cells producing hormones like glucagon and somatostatin.
JejunumThe second part of the small intestine, responsible for the majority of nutrient absorption.
MedullaThe inner region of the adrenal gland producing adrenaline and noradrenaline.
MineralocorticoidsHormones produced by the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex, involved in regulating the body’s salt and water balance.
NoradrenalineAlso known as norepinephrine, a hormone produced by the adrenal medulla causing vasoconstriction and increasing blood pressure.
PancreasA glandular organ involved in both endocrine and exocrine functions, producing digestive enzymes and hormones like insulin.
Pancreatic DuctA duct running through the pancreas, allowing digestive enzymes to flow into the duodenum.
Pancreatic PolypeptideA hormone produced by PP cells in the Islets of Langerhans, involved in regulating pancreatic secretions.
Portal VeinA vein carrying nutrient-rich blood from the gastrointestinal tract to the liver.
SomatostatinA hormone produced by delta cells in the Islets of Langerhans, regulating the secretion of other hormones.
Type 1 Diabetes MellitusAn autoimmune condition where the body’s immune system destroys insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas, leading to elevated blood glucose levels.
Type 2 DiabetesA metabolic disorder characterized by insulin resistance, where the body’s cells do not respond effectively to insulin, leading to elevated blood sugar levels.
UretersStructures that transport urine from the kidneys to the bladder.
Zona FasciculataThe thickest layer of the adrenal cortex, responsible for producing glucocorticoids like cortisol.
Zona GlomerulosaThe outermost layer of the adrenal cortex, producing mineralocorticoids like aldosterone.
Zona ReticularisThe innermost layer of the adrenal cortex, producing sex hormones, particularly androgens.