|Stratum Basale (Basal Layer)
|The deepest layer of the epidermis, containing basal cells that are mitotically active, producing new skin cells.
|Stratum Spinosum (Spiny Layer)
|The layer above the basal layer, named for the spiny appearance of cells due to desmosomal connections, providing strength and flexibility.
|Stratum Granulosum (Granular Layer)
|The layer where keratinocytes accumulate granules of keratohyalin, contributing to water retention and barrier function.
|Stratum Lucidum (Clear Layer)
|A thin, transparent layer found only in thick skin, consisting of dead and flattened keratinocytes.
|Stratum Corneum (Horny Layer)
|The outermost layer made of dead keratinocytes that forms a durable, waterproof barrier.
|The supportive layer below the stratum basale, providing nutrition to the epidermis, not an epidermal layer but included for context.
|The superficial area of the dermis with projections that increase the surface area of contact with the epidermis.
|The deeper part of the dermis providing structural strength and elasticity due to dense connective tissue.
|Subcutaneous Fatty Tissue
|The bottom-most layer acting as insulation, an energy reserve, and cushioning for the skin.
|Free nerve endings that detect painful stimuli.
|Involved in thermoregulation and excretion.
|Allow the sensation of touch.
|Small blood vessels that supply the dermis with nutrients and oxygen.
|Sense mechanical changes in the environment.
|The tissue at the base of the nail bed responsible for producing cells that become the nail plate.
|Proximal Nail Fold
|The skin overlapping the nail matrix.
|A layer of clear skin along the bottom edge of the finger or toe, protecting new nail from bacterial infections.
|The skin beneath the body of the nail, which is rich in blood vessels.
|The part of the nail that extends beyond the finger or toe.
|Phalanx (bone of fingertip)
|The distal portion of the fingers or toes.
|The deepest layer of the epidermis involved in generating new skin cells.
|A cell in the stratum basale that produces the pigment melanin, giving skin its color and protecting against UV radiation.
|Immune cells within the stratum spinosum that respond to pathogens.
|A thin layer that anchors the epidermis to the dermis.
|The whitish half-moon shape at the base of the nail, visible part of the nail matrix.
|Lateral Nail Fold
|The fold of skin at the side of the nail.
|The area of sensitive skin under the free edge of the nail plate.
|The part of the nail under the skin where nail growth begins.
|The bone beneath the nail bed.