1206 Skin Anatomy Study Resources

Stratum Basale (Basal Layer)The deepest layer of the epidermis, containing basal cells that are mitotically active, producing new skin cells.
Stratum Spinosum (Spiny Layer)The layer above the basal layer, named for the spiny appearance of cells due to desmosomal connections, providing strength and flexibility.
Stratum Granulosum (Granular Layer)The layer where keratinocytes accumulate granules of keratohyalin, contributing to water retention and barrier function.
Stratum Lucidum (Clear Layer)A thin, transparent layer found only in thick skin, consisting of dead and flattened keratinocytes.
Stratum Corneum (Horny Layer)The outermost layer made of dead keratinocytes that forms a durable, waterproof barrier.
DermisThe supportive layer below the stratum basale, providing nutrition to the epidermis, not an epidermal layer but included for context.
Papillary RegionThe superficial area of the dermis with projections that increase the surface area of contact with the epidermis.
Reticular RegionThe deeper part of the dermis providing structural strength and elasticity due to dense connective tissue.
Subcutaneous Fatty TissueThe bottom-most layer acting as insulation, an energy reserve, and cushioning for the skin.
Pain ReceptorsFree nerve endings that detect painful stimuli.
Sweat GlandsInvolved in thermoregulation and excretion.
Touch ReceptorsAllow the sensation of touch.
CapillariesSmall blood vessels that supply the dermis with nutrients and oxygen.
Pressure ReceptorsSense mechanical changes in the environment.
Nail MatrixThe tissue at the base of the nail bed responsible for producing cells that become the nail plate.
Proximal Nail FoldThe skin overlapping the nail matrix.
Eponychium (Cuticle)A layer of clear skin along the bottom edge of the finger or toe, protecting new nail from bacterial infections.
Nail BedThe skin beneath the body of the nail, which is rich in blood vessels.
Free EdgeThe part of the nail that extends beyond the finger or toe.
Phalanx (bone of fingertip)The distal portion of the fingers or toes.
Stratum GerminativumThe deepest layer of the epidermis involved in generating new skin cells.
MelanocyteA cell in the stratum basale that produces the pigment melanin, giving skin its color and protecting against UV radiation.
Dendritic CellsImmune cells within the stratum spinosum that respond to pathogens.
Basement MembraneA thin layer that anchors the epidermis to the dermis.
LunulaThe whitish half-moon shape at the base of the nail, visible part of the nail matrix.
Lateral Nail FoldThe fold of skin at the side of the nail.
HyponychiumThe area of sensitive skin under the free edge of the nail plate.
Nail RootThe part of the nail under the skin where nail growth begins.
Distal PhalanxThe bone beneath the nail bed.